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contributed by Dr. Errol Rummel, FAAO, FCOVD, FNORA

  1. Visual Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI, stroke, etc.)
  2. Hemianopsia (Hemi Field Loss)
  3. Binocular Vision Difficulties (uncoordinated eye movements)
  4. Accommodative Dysfunction (focusing problems)
  5. Convergence Insufficiency (difficulty moving visual fixation inward toward nose)
  6. Ambient Vision Function (confusion in a busy visual environment, like the mall)
  7. Spatial Disorientation (difficulty organizing visually presented material)
  8. Ocular Motor Dysfunction (inaccurate pursuit, or saccadic eye movements)
  9. Diplopia (double vision)
  10. Poor Visual Concentration or Poor Visual Attention
  11. Asthenopia (eyestrain)
  12. Visual Distortion (things seem to move or distort in shape)
  13. Headaches when reading or during other visually directed tasks (usually frontal, or temporal)
  14. Blurred Vision (occurring at distance and/or at near, and may be intermittent or constant)
  15. Squinting or Facial Grimacing (during visual tasks)
  16. Photophobia (light sensitivity)
  17. Loss of Place When Reading (skips words, re-reads)
  18. Loss of Visual Awareness to one or both sides (side vision loss pr peripheral vision constriction)
  19. Visual Memory Problems (forgets what was just being read)
  20. Nystagmus (rapid oscillating side to side eye movements)
  21. Poorly centered standing balance (weight shift and/or loss of balance laterally; forward (flexion) or backwards (extension)
  22. Depth Perception Problems (can not judge spatial distances)
  23. Inaccurate Eye-Hand/Eye-Foot Coordination (mis-judges when reaching or walking)
  24. Slow Reaction Time to Visual Stimuli (poor visual attention)
  25. Visual-Perceptual Problems (e.g. form perception, figure-ground, etc)
  26. Dizziness/Visual-Vestibular Dysfunction (related to reading, or in a busy visual environment)
  27. Ptosis (a droopy eyelid)
  28. Blepharoparesis (an eyelid which does not blink well or doesn't close fully)
Helping Parents and Patients since 1996


To learn more, read the following articles:

Traumatic Brain Injury & Hidden Visual Problems

Brain Injury Success Stories

Conditions Treated by Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation

Frequently Asked Questions: Eye Muscle Surgery

Loss of Visual Field Due to Brain Injury

Visual Problems Associated with Neurological Events

What is Vision Therapy?

Visual training teaches the brain to see again after stroke

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